Sunday, 1 February 2015

One child policy

The one-child policy was originally designed to be a one-generation policy.[18] It is enforced at the provincial level and enforcement varies; some provinces have relaxed the restrictions. After Henan loosened the requirement, the majority of provinces and cities[19][20] permit two parents who were 'only children' themselves to have two children. In 2013, this rule was relaxed even further: couples in which one parent is an only child are allowed to have a second child.[21] In rural areas, families are allowed two children without incurring penalties.[22] The one-child limit has mostly been enforced in densely populated urban areas, and implementation varies from location to location.[23] Beginning in 1987, official policy granted local officials the flexibility to make exceptions and allow second children in the case of "practical difficulties" (such as cases in which the father is a disabled serviceman) or when both parents are single children,[24] and some provinces had other exemptions worked into their policies as well. In most areas, families are allowed to apply to have a second child if their first-born is a daughter.[25] Furthermore, families with children with disability in China have different policies and families whose first child suffers from physical disabilitymental illness, or intellectual disability are allowed to have more children.[26] Second children may be subject to birth spacing (usually 3 or 4 years). Children born in overseas countries are not counted under the policy if they do not obtain Chinese citizenship. Chinese citizens returning from abroad are allowed to have a second child.[27] 
Following the 2008 Sichuan earthquake, a new exception to the regulations was announced in Sichuan province for parents who had lost children in the earthquake.[29][30] Similar exceptions have previously been made for parents of severely disabled or deceased children.[31] People have also tried to evade the policy by giving birth to a second child in Hong Kong, but at least for Guangdong residents, the one-child policy is also enforced if the birth was given in Hong Kong or abroad.[32]

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